Son épidémiologie est liée à la grande variabilité du virus au cours du temps, nécessitant la mise en place d’un système d’alerte détectant chaque année les variants circulants dominant et déterminant la composition vaccinale. Cette maladie présente forcément des symptômes, très caractéristiques. Les différents sous-types sont déterminés par la nature des deux glycoprotéines de surface HA et NA. However, at least one observational study of A(H1N1)pdm09 found improved survival in the severely ill when antiviral treatment was provided within five days of symptom onset (Louie, 2012). dans la newsletter. Expert opinion is supportive (Jefferson, 2008) but there have been few randomised trials with laboratory-confirmed influenza as end points (Cowling et al., 2009; MacIntyre et al., 2009). These data contribute to the bi-annual WHO expert meetings where the recommendations of the influenza vaccine composition for the next season are formulated. Le virus de la grippe se dissipe, quant à lui, plus rapidement. 2012; 17(18):pii: 20162. Moreover, an EU target was set by the Health Council of all Health Ministers of 75% vaccination coverage by 2014/15 in the older age groups, and if possible extended to people with chronic conditions. Le nouveau coronavirus a provoqué une saturation des services d’urgence, alors que cette situation est rare dans le cas de la grippe. L'équipe PasseportSanté se mobilise pour vous fournir de l'information fiable et actualisée sur le coronavirus. How CDC Estimates the Burden of Seasonal Influenza in the U.S. preliminary cumulative burden estimates for the 2019-2020 season, Flu Burden PowerPoint Presentation Slides, Seasonal Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in the United States, Annual estimates of the burden of seasonal influenza in the United States: A tool for strengthening influenza surveillance and preparedness. Moreover, only influenza type A viruses are responsible for the occasional pandemics. Cela est particulièrement vrai en période non épidémique, chez les sujets de plus de 65 ans et chez les enfants de moins de cinq ans. L’OMS (Organisation Mondiale de la Santé) recommande la. Influenza activity in Europe during eight seasons (1999-2007): an evaluation of the indicators used to measure activity and an assessment of the timing, length and spread across Europe. Burden of seasonal influenza hospitalization in children, United States, 2003 to 2008. Parmi les nombreux sous-types des virus grippaux A, les sous-types A(H1N1) et A(H3N2) circulent actuellement chez l’homme. It is considered important that patients monitor themselves to detect if their condition deteriorates and they require medical intervention. Cependant, si une grippe survient malgré tout, ses symptômes sont souvent affaiblis et les complications graves plus rares. En cas de malaise ou de maladie, consultez d’abord un médecin ou un professionnel de la santé en mesure d’évaluer adéquatement votre état de santé. Good respiratory hygiene – covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, using tissues and disposing of them correctly. The burden of influenza disease in the United States can vary widely and is determined by a number of factors including the characteristics of circulating viruses, the timing of the season, how well the vaccine is working to protect against illness, and how many people got vaccinated. Choice of method is based on the characteristics of the test: sensibility, specificity, speed and ease of realization, and cost. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. Children are especially vulnerable to influenza virus infections. L’aspirine et les AINS ne doivent pas être pris simultanément ( dans tous les cas, si vous avez des questions, référez-vous à un professionnel de santé). La proportion de cas sévères et critiques serait plus élevée que ce que l’on observe pour la grippe.”. Vaccination is especially important for people at higher risk of serious influenza complications: Individuals with specific chronic medical conditions, pregnant women, and children aged 6-59 months, the elderly and healthcare workers. Dans le monde, chaque année, 5% à 10% des adultes sont contaminés par le virus de la grippe, et 20% à 30% des enfants. BMC Infectious Diseases. Les formes graves sont la détresse respiratoire avec une sensation d’oppression ou d’essoufflement, une insuffisance rénale et une défaillance multiviscérales, dans de plus rares cas. Vous pourrez désactiver les cookies ultérieurement : Consulter le document de l’Assurance Maladie. Elle n’est pas obligatoire, mais est fortement recommandée pour les personnes les plus fragiles et pour le personnel soignant, car comme mentionné ci-dessus, le virus de la grippe se propage très rapidement et est très contagieux. Although vaccination is the preferred option for preventing influenza, antivirals can be useful when the vaccine fails or is unavailable, for example, due to: antigenic mismatch with circulating virus, waning immunity in elderly, patient being immunocompromised, the vaccine not yet available, or during an outbreak of an emerging influenza strain or pandemic. Influenza viruses are usually classified into three types: A, B and C, according to differences in antigenic and biologic properties. Influenza Surveillance Report (FluView), Past Flu Seasons Flu Forecasting Accuracy Results, Tools to Prepare Your Practice for Flu Season, Information for Clinicians on Influenza Virus Testing, Multiplex Assays Authorized for Simultaneous Detection of Influenza Viruses and SARS-CoV-2, Information on Collection of Respiratory Specimens for Influenza Virus Testing, Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for Influenza, Information on Rapid Molecular Assays, RT-PCR, and other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection, Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing Results When Influenza is Circulating, Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing Results When Influenza is NOT Circulating, Guide: Influenza Diagnostic Testing in Closed Setting Outbreaks, Guidance: Standard-Based Electronic Laboratory Reporting, Guidance: Antiviral and Obstetric Health Care, Guidance: Outbreak Management in Long-Term Care Facilities, Guidance: Use of Mask to Control Influenza Transmission, Guidance: Prevention & Control in Peri- and Postpartum Settings, Health Professional References & Resources, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Textbook of Influenza. It may e.g. 2014;2(6):445-54. Les chiffres de l’épidémie de grippe relevés dans l’hémisphère Sud pourraient d’ailleurs amener à penser que les gestes barrières déployés aux quatre coins du monde contre le Sars-CoV-2 sont en effet très efficaces contre les virus Influenza. In some cases the disease becomes more severe due to the influenza virus infection or a secondary, usually bacterial, infection e.g. Injected inactivated influenza vaccines are most commonly used throughout the world. The burden of influenza-associated critical illness hospitalizations. Severe disease may also include myocarditis or encephalitis, which may be fatal. 2012;55(9):1198-204. ECDC continues to emphasise that all Europeans who are recommended to have the influenza vaccine should get vaccinated. Le virus grippal circulant A(H… Use of oseltamivir in 12 European countries between 2002 and 2007 – lack of association with the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses. Type B does not have subtypes but two antigenically distinct lineages: Victoria and Yamagata. The genome of influenza viruses is subject to a significant spontaneous mutation rate, known as antigenic drift. That is then a pandemic strain (see Edwin D. Kilbourne, 2006; Influenza Pandemics of the 20th and 21st Century). Euro Surveill. Seasonal influenza causes 4 -50 million symptomatic cases in EU/EEA each year, and 15 000 – 70 000 European citizens die every year of causes associated with influenza. CMAJ. Neuraminidase inhibitors, oral oseltamivir and inhaled zanamivir, are useful for treatment and prophylactic use. The information contained in this factsheet is intended for the purpose of general information and should not be used as a substitute for the individual expertise and judgement of healthcare professionals when it comes to patient care. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013. Les personnes présentant des maladies chroniques (cardiaques, rénales, pulmonaires, hépatiques, sanguines…) ou ayant une déficience au niveau du système respiratoire. Read more about avian influenza and swine influenza. © European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) 2020, Questions and answers on seasonal influenza, Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial Annals of Internal medicine 2009. D’après l’OMS, “80 % des infections sont bénignes ou asymptomatiques, 15 % sont graves et nécessitent une oxygénothérapie, tandis que 5 % sont critiques et exigent une assistance respiratoire. L’application des mesures d’hygiène (mouchoir à usage unique, lavage des mains régulier et aération fréquent de son habitat) est recommandée pour éviter de transmettre le virus aux autres. Hospitalizations associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States, 1993-2008. The complications can potentially occur in anyone, but hospitalisations are more common in older persons (≥65 years of age, 309/100,000 person-years) (Zhou, 2012) and in the youngest children (<1 year of age, 151/100,000 person-years) (Zhou, 2012). principes de la Cela peut d’abord ressembler à un rhume, avec des éternuements et des écoulements au niveau du nez. In 2003 The World Health Assembly, which includes all EU/EEA countries, lent its support to targets for vaccination uptake in the elderly of 50% by 2006 and 75% by 2010. Le virus responsable de la grippe est le virus influenza qui comprend trois souches : Les souches en circulation dans l’air différent d’une année à l’autre, c’est pour cette raison qu’il faut se faire vacciner chaque année. La grippe saisonnière est une maladie épidémique et hivernale dans les zones à climat tempéré. Thompson WW, Shay DK, Weintraub E, et al. L’Influenza est le virus responsable de la grippe saisonnière. Le repos et la réhydratation suffisent souvent à diminuer l’intensité des symptômes. La grippe saisonnière est une infection virale respiratoire très contagieuse, qui apparait principalement en automne et en hiver, avec un pic d’infections pendant l’hiver. Seasonal influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease that each year infects approximately 10 to 30 % of Europe's population, and causes hundreds of thousands of hospitalisations across Europe. La grippe saisonnière est due aux virus influenza A et B. Il s’agit de virus enveloppés dont le génome est constitué de sept à huit fragments d’ARN. Influenza A viruses are further divided into subtypes. Influenza-related deaths – available methods for estimating numbers and detecting patterns for seasonal and pandemic influenza in Europe. The network combines epidemiological and virological surveillance of influenza. Mais les autorités de santé préviennent contre des interprétations hâtives de ces données et appellent plus que jamais à avoir recours au vaccin en plus des gestes barrières. Type B infections are less common and usually milder than influenza A(H3N2). Pourquoi on en parle. Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors was rare in seasonal influenza until the emergence of resistant seasonal A(H1N1) viruses in 2007-2008 (Moscona, 2005; Meijer, 2009). Serology usually plays no role in routine clinical diagnosis because subsequent blood samples are required to identify an increase in the serum level of influenza-specific antibodies. Elle sévit sur un mode épidémique saisonnier essentiellement autumno-hivernal. 2012;54(10):1427-36. When hand-washing is not possible, alcohol-based hand sanitisers are an option. The incubation time for seasonal influenza is on average two days, but ranges from one to four days. Dans des cas particuliers chez des patients très fragiles, il se peut que le médecin prescrive un antiviral, mais la plupart du temps cela n’est pas nécessaire. 2009 Feb 5;14(5). Seasonal influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease and annual influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza. Les risques de développer une forme grave de Covid-19 sont plus élevés que ceux de la grippe. Viruses may be spread when a person touches something that is contaminated with the virus and then touches his or her eyes, nose, or mouth. Influenza viruses are RNA viruses from the family Orthomyxoviridae, and have a worldwide distribution. Santé sur le Net est le seul et unique site qui met le patient au cœur de sa santé grâce à son portail d'informations et à son forum animé par des experts. 2014;42(11):2325-32. The different subtypes are determined by the nature of the two surface glycoproteins HA and NA. Consulter le document de l’Assurance Maladie La grippe saisonnière et son vaccin : 5 questions clés pour démêler le vrai du faux. 2nd ed. Par ailleurs, un plan national de prévention et de lutte contre la grippe saisonnière est disponible pour définir les stratégies et aider à prendre des décisions en cas d’épidémie. To receive weekly email updates about Seasonal Flu, enter your email address: Preliminary In-Season Disease Burden Estimates, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. La grippe saisonnière est une infection virale respiratoire très contagieuse, qui apparait principalement en automne et en hiver, avec un pic d’infections pendant l’hiver.. Vidéo ci-contre : Les virus … chronic renal failure); chronic neurological conditions and physical handicap (e.g. However, in 2009-2010, when the most recent influenza pandemic took place,, A(H1N1)pdm09 replaced A(H1N1). While the impact of flu varies, it places a substantial burden on the health of people in the United States each year. La gêne respiratoire concernant la grippe est plutôt liée à ces deux symptômes qu’à une atteinte pulmonaire. La nouvelle maladie Covid-19, a, quant à elle,  contaminé 1 282 769 personnes et engendré 36 020 décès, au 30 octobre 2020. 2009 April. Sommeil : comment bien dormir en période de confinement ? depend on the nature of the pandemic influenza virus, immunization coverage and pre-existing immunity in the population. consist of swabbing the nose and nasal cavity. Tous droits réservés. Post-exposure prophylaxis with influenza antivirals, for example for an at-risk unvaccinated person, is dependent on timely prescription given that the incubation period is 1-4 days. Apart from the age-related increased risk, the risk of complications is increased for people of any age with particular chronic medical conditions: Moreover, healthy pregnant women have been found to be at increased risk of becoming hospitalized due to respiratory illness during influenza seasons (Dodds, 2007). Routes of influenza transmission. 2009. Influenza viruses are usually classified into three types: A, B and C, according to differences in antigenic and biologic properties. Except for virus culture these results can be available within approximately 1-2 days, and can help adjust the treatment. Prescription of prophylaxis depends on several factors e.g. Latest surveillance reports and disease data on seasonal influenza; Flu News Europe, Influenza virus characterisation reports, ECDC Surveillance Atlas, Annual Epidemiological Reports. Type C viruses cause some human disease but only comparatively few outbreaks. Depuis le début de l’épidémie liée au coronavirus en France, les manifestations de la maladie, énoncées par les autorités de santé, font référence à celles de la grippe. Et parce que chaque pathologie est spécifique, nous mettons également à votre disposition un réseau de sites spécialisés pour accompagner les patients atteints de maladies chroniques. Chacun d’entre nous est susceptible d’être contaminé par le virus de la grippe, mais certaines tranches de la population sont plus sujettes à des complications : En France, la grippe touche chaque année entre 2 et 8 millions de personnes et engendre entre 1500 et 2000 décès, principalement chez les personnes de plus de 65 ans. Ce site respecte les Due to the high resistance (>99%) adamantanes are no longer recommended. by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus. The US Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network, Hospitalizations associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States, 1993-2008, Influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States, Estimates of global seasonal influenza-associated respiratory mortality: a modelling study, Seasonal flu death estimate increases worldwide, Global role and burden of influenza in pediatric respiratory hospitalizations, 1982-2012: A systematic analysis, CDC Collaborative Study: Influenza Important Cause of Respiratory Hospitalizations Worldwide, Estimating Seasonal Influenza-Associated Deaths in the United States: CDC Study Confirms Variability of Flu, Estimates of deaths associated with seasonal influenza—United States, 1976–2007, Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States, The annual impact of seasonal influenza in the US: measuring disease burden and costs, Flu Prevention Infographic, “Business Challenges”, Health Professionals: References and Resources, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Reconstruction of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Virus, 2019-2020 Preliminary In-Season Burden Estimate, Who is at High Risk for Flu Complications, Who Should & Who Should NOT Get Vaccinated, Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV)/Nasal Spray Vaccine, Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies, Frequently Asked Questions on Vaccine Supply, Historical Reference of Vaccine Doses Distributed, Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (HAIVEN), How Vaccine Effectiveness and Efficacy are Measured, What People with a Staph Infection Should Know about Flu, Resources for Hosting a Vaccination Clinic, Overview of Influenza Surveillance in the United States, Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET), Weekly U.S. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review, Use of oseltamivir in 12 European countries between 2002 and 2007 – lack of association with the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses. 2007;176(4):463-8. Zucs P, Buchholz U, Haas W, Uphoff H. Influenza-associated excess mortality in Germany, 1985-2001. Influenza D virus in cattle, France, 2011-2014. Ces gouttelettes contiennent des millions de virus qui se retrouvent alors dans l’air ambiant et qui peuvent être inhalées et respirées par une personne non malade. WHO recommends seasonal influenza vaccination for the following risk groups: pregnant women, children aged 6-59 months, the elderly, and individuals with chronic medical conditions. En poursuivant votre navigation sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies qui nous permettent de nous souvenir de vos préférences, analyser le trafic sur ce site et améliorer les contenus qui vous sont proposés. Pour être efficaces, les antiviraux doivent être administrés dès le début de l’apparition des symptômes. pii: 19112. Among viruses that infect humans influenza is moderately infectious. Some of the main underlying reasons for this are: imperfect vaccine effectiveness, influenza cases do not always seek healthcare, and  delayed and rare use of antiviral treatment. Kramarz P (2009), Monnet D, Nicoll A, Yilmaz C, Ciancio B. In birds H1-H16 and N1-N9 have been detected. Il semblerait que les patients atteints par la Covid-19 présenteraient des récidives, plusieurs semaines après la guérison. Ces symptômes, éléments du syndrome grippal dont la grippe n'est qu'une cause parmi d'autres, font évoquer le diagnostic par la soudaineté de leur apparition, leur survenue en période d'épidémie grippale et leur disparition habituelle après quelques jours d'évolution. En revanche, certaines infections sont parfois plus robustes et nécessitent des traitements médicaux, notamment à base d’antipyrétiques tels que le paracétamol, l’aspirine et des anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS). Re-assortments are not that rare but only very occasionally lead to a viable influenza A virus, with ability to infect humans, cause disease in humans, cause sustained person-to-person transmission, and for which many or most humans have little or no immunity. Le vaccin «trivalent» contre la grippe saisonnière protège contre 2 souches du virus Influenza de type A et une souche de type B; le vaccin «quadrivalent» protège en plus contre une deuxième souche de type B. Treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors for critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Seasonal influenza is a preventable infectious disease with mostly respiratory symptoms. Pre-exposure prophylaxis with influenza antivirals can be prescribed for longer or shorter time periods when an exposure is expected, for example in healthcare settings. The subtypes are determined by two glycoproteins on the virus surface, haemagglutinin … Clinical flu symptoms are not sufficiently specific to allow for diagnosis with virological tests. En application de la loi nº78-17 du 6 janvier 1978 relative à l'informatique, aux fichiers et aux libertés, vous disposez des droits d'opposition (art.26 de la loi), d'accès (art.34 à 38 de la loi), et de rectification (art.36 de la loi) des données vous concernant. Alors comment différencier leurs symptômes ? Its epidemiology is linked to the great variability of the virus in time, necessitating an alert system that detects dominating circulating variants each year and that determines the vaccination composition. Pour en savoir plus et All age groups are affected, though the proportions of the groups vary from year to year according to the dominating viruses and the level of population immunity. Avoiding close contact with sick people, e.g. © 2010  In all cases of respiratory syndrome compatible with influenza virus infection in hospitalized subjects, virological flu diagnosis is of utmost interest. The tests performed in laboratories include RT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunoassay, immunofluorescence, and virus culture. Hands should be washed thoroughly with soap and water, and dried. 2015;21(2):368-71. JAMA. Partners and networks working with influenza prevention and control. Si des symptômes apparaissent, un numéro gratuit dédié à l’information sur le coronavirus est disponible au 0800 130 000. Les modes de contamination de la Covid-19 sont les mêmes que ceux de la grippe : par transmission aérienne, par les fines gouttelettes excrétées, par contact avec des malades ou les surfaces souillées, comme les poignées de portes. Despite the often short duration of illness, the yearly economic and healthcare burden of influenza is substantial. Based on published literature (Dawood, 2010; Hayward, 2014; Ortiz, 2014; Thompson 2003), mainly from the USA and extrapolated to an EU/EEA population of approximately 512 million, the burden of seasonal influenza has been estimated (Figure 1). Nicoll A, Ciancio BC, Lopez Chavarrias V, Mølbak K, Pebody R, Pedzinski B, et al. During the influenza surveillance season ECDC and WHO Europe jointly publish weekly updates on influenza in Europe, based on information provided by experts, virologists and medical doctors throughout the wider European region. cardiovascular disease, may also occur. Les femmes enceintes, les enfants, les individus souffrant de maladies chroniques ou d’immunodépression et les personnes âgées, appartiennent à la population la plus exposée aux risques de complications liées à la grippe. Clin Infect Dis. Cough, fatigue, and malaise may last some weeks. L’Influenza est le virus responsable de la grippe saisonnière. Bienvenue sur EM-consulte, la référence des professionnels de santé.L’achat d’article à l’unité est indisponible à l’heure actuelle. Influenza risk groups are people who are more likely than others develop complications should they be infected. Les symptômes cliniques de la grippe ne sont pas suffisamment spécifiques pour permettre le diagnostic sans examen virologique. J Pediatr. Elle se caractérise par l’apparition brutale d’une fièvre élevée (supérieure à 38 °C). Comparative community burden and severity of seasonal and pandemic influenza: results of the Flu Watch cohort study. Sporadic infections occur outside of the influenza season, though the incidence is very low in the European summer when infections may be the result of imported cases from equatorial areas (where transmission is more year round) and the southern hemisphere where most infection takes place between June to October. Nous © Cherry for Life Science 2020 | All Rights Reserved | Mentions légales / CGU. Most simple seasonal influenza cases are managed symptomatically and are advised bedrest at home to minimize the risk for infecting others in the community. En savoir plus sur la gestion de vos données et vos droits. Emerg Infect Dis. Influenza A viruses are further divided into subtypes. Early self-isolation of those feeling unwell, feverish and having other symptoms of influenza. Euro Surveill. (Killingley, 2013). La mortalité concernant la Covid-19 semble aussi plus élevée que pour la grippe saisonnière. Estimating influenza-related excess mortality and reproduction numbers for seasonal influenza in Norway, 1975–2004. Face mask use and control of respiratory virus transmission in households. En France, il existe sur le marché cinq vaccins grippaux : Votre adresse de messagerie est uniquement utilisée pour vous envoyer les lettres d'information d'actualité Santé sur le Net. Mots clés : Virus influenza, Hémagglutinine, Neuraminidase, Variabilité, Épidémie, Infection respiratoire, Immunofluorescence, Tests rapides, RT-PCR, Keywords : Influenza virus, Hemagglutinin, Neuraminidase, Variability, Epidemic, Respiratory infection, Immunofluorescence, Rapid test, RT-PCR. Antibodies against these glycoproteins are associated with immunity against influenza. Le recours à l’hospitalisation est d’autant plus élevé que l’enfant est jeune. Crit Care Med. Type A and B viruses are the predominant virus types causing disease in humans and are the focus of this factsheet. H17-18 and N10-11 have been detected in bats. Après plusieurs mois à tenter d’éviter le Covid-19, masqués et désormais inséparables de notre flacon de gel hydroalcoolique, nous pourrions, cette année, nous sentir prêts à affronter la grippe saisonnière sans passer par la case vaccin. If the infected person doesn’t cover his or her mouth and nose people within a range of two meters can be infected. Treatment focuses on reducing fever and relieving the symptoms. Ortiz JR, Neuzil KM, Shay DK, et al. Vaccination is the most effective form of influenza prevention. Although vaccination is the preferred option for preventing influenza, antivirals can be useful when the vaccine fails.